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With Industry 4.0, IOT, Digital Transformation and IOE wave, the system being modelled is a interacting network of people and devices which is connected together by an information system that works as the nervous system. This changed nature of applications, demand that our language and computers move from its 1950s foundations.

The expectation, in this new networked era is that software systems are deployed across a network of people, devices and organizations. And they work seamlessly, securely with privacy. At MasterKube, we believe that these new demands will not adequately be furnished by the current software languages and machine architectures, because of its computing foundation. To serve this new networked era, the machines have to move from its current Computation by Design premise to a Interaction by design premise. Connection machine, built ground up by Interaction by design thinking, will enable enterprises to go smart and digital quickly.

The purpose of this page is to give the What, why, how, and where of MasterKube connection Machine.


What is MasterKube Connection Machine?

An Enterprise, economy or for that matter our human body/society is a society of independently operating entities that collaborate for a common goal. The order in which they communicate with each other is the process. For e.g.: smart factory, is an internet of manufacturing cells, interacting with each other to form the manufacturing process that makes products.
The connection machine is a device that operates at business level, which can be programmed to connect different parties of your Internet of Everything or Internet of Things solution. Unlike the present-day IT, which operates on data, the connection machine creates pathways on which these independently operating entities like customers, employees, present day siloed information systems, devices, factories, supply network can walkthrough creating a collaborating Internet. Creating these pathways is governed by Connection Machine Programming Language (CMPL).

Systems built on Connection Machine, talks to each other using Signals. The state of the system, is a Networked Hyperspace. External systems can navigate this space very easily.

The Connection machine is available on your premises hardware, as a service and as an appliance in future. The only requirements that is expected from infrastructure besides hardware are

  • JVM,
  • Linux operating system,
  • MySQL server and
  • TOMCAT server.

An appliance-based approach is planned in the future as the current Connection Machine implementations are simulated on sequential machine. This does not give the full power of the connection machine; a radical hardware redesign would significantly increase thruput.

Why should i use Connection Machine?

Connection Machine is built ground up to deliver systems for the digital networked era. Tools that were designed for the web era and pre-web era will not be sufficient to completely take care of the networked and concurrent nature of these digital era. MasterKube Connection Machine is a safe bet to deliver your Internet of everything digital era, for the following reasons.

Ease with which it enable Secure & Agile Digital Business

Digital Cloud architecture with present day technology

The above picture is a standard high security generic Digital data architecture. It consists of devices (Web, Mobile or IOT) that people or other devices interact with. These devices are plugged into a common server, which acts a hub to coordinate these devices. This hub does this by creating responses for all the interactions .

The picture depicts this hub architecture. It first securely accepts requests into the data center, then it is interpreted by an application program like (Java, PHP, javascript) and converted into a data base language like SQL and then the reply is prepared by the program and send back to the device.

The whole digital application development is the engineering of these interactions.

Digital Cloud architecture with Connection Machine

Connection Machine Programming is specifying what the different interactions are and the response when an interaction is pressed. The fact that interactions does not have to be manufactured with a combination of sequential languages and data manipulation language like SQL, GQL, etc. radically simplifies the digital architecture.

With Connection Machine, the digital systems built will offer Security/Privacy by Design with No Code and database.

Co-Exists easily with your current infrastructure and Applications

All existing enterprises will have existing IT, Security and Applications infrastructure. It is not wise to simply remove these and replace it with a completely new infrastructure, as the change management of the existing people and processes will put the digital transformation in jeopardy. Moving to digital is a must have exercise, but it has to be achieved by leveraging the existing infrastructure and elevating it so it can participate in this reimagined new digital economy. Any new Digital technology, needs to co-exist with the existing systems by simplifying application integration, ease of securing information systems and should be able to be hosted on any Infrastructure.

Simpler Applications integration

The existing infrastructure like ERP, etc are built with older architectures. They are not built for the digital networked era. But these applications which are currently being used, needs to be leveraged and used to stitch together the new digital processes. Because MasterKube Connection Machine is Open By Design it can be easily integrated to these older assets and make it part of this new digital redesign.

Ease of securing Connection machine information

Digital systems are built ground up to work on the network. Since these systems are operating at the network and it is exposed to the public network, it is important that all information endpoints are secured. The current information systems have their data stored in the data base, opening information to SQL injection errors, there by making applications very vulnerable.

Unlike current systems, Systems built on MasterKube Connection machine is a Hyperspace with all information as hypertext exposed as HTTP endpoints. This makes it easy to secure these information endpoints quickly with already available web content firewall. Availability of information as hyperspace with no DML, reduces SQL injection errors. The ease with which Connection Machine based systems can be incorporated into your current security setup and how it avoids the vulnerabilities by default makes it an ideal Digital Transformation Device.

Infrastructure freedom

Currently Connection Machine is available on demand on any cloud provider of your choice or on your own data center. It is very easy to lift the connection Machine state and shift it to a different cloud provider. The relative ease with which this can be done, makes your information systems vendor neutral.

Secure systems at network level

State of the Connection Machine is exposed to the observing systems as Hypertext. The whole Connection Machine hyperspace can be navigated by a browser or a program. Experiences are created by weaving this hypertext space.

As the whole exploration is at the application level of Network, it can be easily intervened at the network level by standard network security tools like Web_application_firewall, HTTPS to improve security, LDAP level security etc.

Creating security at Network level significantly reduces the threat vectors there by making the digital business safe and secure.

HATEOAS systems out of box

HATEOAS is acronym full REST based systems. All state of the Connection machine is exposed as HTTP URL. Any client can get the state of the system by enquiring with standard web HTTP requests. All state can be enquired at run time making client programs simpler and the systems agile.

Because the state is exposed as HTTP with XML response, it is easy to build systems. Changes to the interface will not break the system as the client does not make any assumptions about the response. Building systems this way makes it very adaptable. Building HATEOAS using traditional web and pre-web software is very difficult.

MasterKube Connection Machine delivers hyperspace HATEOAS systems effortlessly.

High performing systems

Performance of network systems can be affected either because of the latency of the network or it could be because the system cannot scale to the throughput needs of the system load. Adopting Connection Machine, buys ways to control the latency of the application and also to control the throughput of the systems

Connection Machine, models system as a network of nodes (autonomous agents) that interact with each other. To increase the scale of the application all that needs to be done is to spawn many more nodes in parallel to handle the load. This way it will exhibit a system that increases thru put as the load increases.

The unique connection based programming paradigm, makes the connections exposed to the observer stateless. There are provisions in Connection Machine to say what the caching time is for each interaction/connection. The stateless nature of the connection along with caching time configuration at connection level reduces system network latency.

Minimum 50% improvement in software productivity

Connection machine will reduce your code size by at least 50%. It has been our experience that the more sophisticated systems can give a productivity of 70% compared to a imperative language like Java.

Atleast 20% reduction in defects

During SDLC, the design time is employed in designing programs and data base. The interactional nature of MasterKube Connection Machine and the absence of Database reduces this design step. This design steps normally consumes around 20% of the total effort. Absence of these two elements reduces at least 20% reduction in effort.

ROI Breakeven in the first project

Reduction in Development effort and reduction in Defects along with the automatic application scaling achieves ROI breakeven in the first project.

What is so special about Connection Machine?

Unlike the traditional computer, MasterKube Connection Machine is built to serve the networked world. In the networked world, what is important is specifying how these different components of the network Interact or work together to model our information systems. Given this, the Connection machine approach is radically different. This section gives what those differences are at a high level.

No program_counter

Present IT at its core is programs executing on traditional microprocessors (like intel, AMD, ARM, etc). Application Programs are compiled into binaries which are then executed over the processor. All application programs that a programmer create, proceed one step at a time. I.e in a sequential manner. When this application program executes, it is the Program counter that controls which instruction to execute next. When the program executes there is no interaction with the outside world, the program executes as per the program sequence given by the programmer.

Where as the Connection Machine, works in the opposite manner. I.e it works on interactions. The application is network of independently operating entities (Agents in connection machine parlance) working together to form a process. The process, in this networked case, advance when process components interact/communicate with each other. The programmer in Connection machine, programs what further interactions are exposed when an interaction is interacted with. This absence of program counter in the Connection Machine makes it an ideal machine to do model processes in a networked world.

Absence of program counter makes the systems built on Connection machine very secure, concurrent and agile.

No Database

In all traditional systems all data is stored in a data base and is queried by the application program using a standard Database Management Query Language like SQL, GQL, GSQL etc. Web services, are generated by application programs that read from these databases.

Whereas with Connection machine, the observer sees no database. All state is exposed as hypertext. Rather than the current practice of row and columns, the whole state in connection machine is connected hypertext. Connection Machine is the only system, that delivers state as HATEOAS and hence it makes it very easy to build hyperconnected network and digital applications. A systems expressed as Hypertext make it very easy to represent complex relationships like one-to-many, many-to-many, etc. Unlike traditional database systems the data relationships are more flexible with Connection Machine. Unlike traditional databases which navigate data space using data manipulation languages, MasterKube connection machine hyperspace can be easily navigated without any specialized languages or tools.

The Connection Machine Programming Language is used to build the different agents/nodes and how they interact/connect with each other. This unique approach to information makes it possible to create complex structures not conceivable presently

Offers Security by Design

Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability in applications is now expected to be available by design. All computer systems and programming languages are expected to offer security features by design. But most current machines and languages do not provide any features to make this possible out of box.

Connection Machine is built with a premise that security is a fundamental part of the core machine. The CMPL provides way to hide information and share it confidentially. Because of the unique interaction-based technology of Connection machine, Confidentiality, Integrity and availability is provided by design at the network level.

Hypertext nature of the data, offers better security, as it can be provided at the network level. The use of HTTP makes it easy to incorporate security using existing content firewall technologies already available in client premises.

Offers Privacy by Design

Privacy is a new feature that is expected out of all information technology systems. It is now mandated by law in Europe, Singapore, India etc. The privacy component is made up of Information unlinkability, Information Transparency and Information intervenability.

The current IT infrastructure and application programming languages do not provide much support for these privacy features. The unique connection-based machine and the Connection Machine programing language provides features, which reduces effort to bring in Privacy features to your information systems.

Open by Design

The world is moving away from proprietary architectures to a open and Interoperable world. The openness is characterized by the ease with which other information systems or devices can connect. The execution engine should also be able to be free to be moved across IT infrastructure.

Traditional IT due to the algorithmic nature of the systems and the processor centric nature of execution, encourage proprietary technologies leading to Vendor lock in. This has led to reduction in agility of organizations in the fast paced world.

To prevent this vendor lock in and increasingly arthritic nature of present day IT systems, Connection Machine has by design avoided Algorithms to define this alternate machine architecture. Instead of algorithms, connection machine adopts Interaction as its foundational thinking. Interactions by the very nature assumes that the world around us are built of independently operating disparate systems (a.k.a Agents). And systems are defined by saying what the different agents are How they connect with each other.

In the world of Internet of Things and Internet of Everything, what is important is how easy it is to for devices, information systems, etc. to connect to create this secure cyberworld. To take an analogy, like our electric outlet which makes it easy to connect, the connection machine creates your business internet into which your stakeholders can connect easily.

Connection Machine Programming Language

Connection Machine is programmed with CMPL. Unlike present day machines, CMPL models how the world works. This is done by specifying what the different participants of the autonomous network are and how they work together. The state of the system is the state of the values and hyperspace of connections. Due to the external and internal interactions in the Connection Machine, the state of the network is dynamic. The snapshot of the state at current time, can be experienced by navigating this hyperspace using URL. Your data and its relationships is no more behind complicated Data manipulation languages but can be explored by a human being using standard browser or a any device or programs that steps through these URLs.

Imagine a FMCG co that sells soaps. It can be thought of as a organism that responds in real time like how the brain responds by the touch reflex arc. i.e. the whole FMCG response can be thought of as a network of autonomous agents like retailer, distributor, factory, transporter connected in a forward product flow arc. When two units of soap bar at a small retailer is sold, it signals the forward product flow signaling pathway of the FMCG nervous system, coordinating the autonomous players, to replenish the retailer shelf. The fulfillment pathway signaling can merge with factory production pathways. All this happens in real time giving full visibility to the supply chain.

Connection Machine Programming Language (CMPL) makes smart systems

The Motivation for CMPL

In the marketplace, the needs to develop hyper connected applications like Internet of Things is becoming the norm. These applications are expected to be secure and offer privacy by design. Also the expectation is that these applications are smart and involve people, devices, organizations, information system in silos, in one fluid network. That means the application language should be drastically different from the existing software paradigms to include workflow, cause-effect, containing and aggregation features in one language.

The systems built should be intelligent and should not reflect the past. People should be able to imagine new possibilities to how they want to interact and create processes which reflect that. This goes counter to the present day AI which is based on historical data.

All this means that the software has to have new software foundations. Connection Machine Programming Language reinvents software.

From Algorithms to Interactions

Digital is the transformation of information systems from the process centric model to execute on the network. Information systems on a network is network of autonomous agents working together. UI is leading this autonomous movement with arrival of Single page Web application and Mobile apps. Now it is the turn of entire systems known in common parlance as IOT & IOE. But our existing software paradigm is mired in the data manipulation in memory mind set.

These traditional applications have their conception rooted in 1950s software conceptions of language and implementations. This has lead to huge holes in the application security implementations leading to vulnerabilities like injection errors like SQL, command injection etc.

Besides, these applications are based on languages that specify computation. But increasingly, our application demands human-computer or computer-computer interaction. So, Interactions are now the primary notion and not computation. But we still use computational notions to manufacture interactions.

It is the notion of manufacturing interactions using computational foundations that are creating these different issues. Can we advance the field by moving to a language and machine that models interactions?

Process in connection machine advance forward, when signals in them interact.

What is Interaction and shared transition

Interaction is the effect that happens in two autonomously working entities when they react with each other. A process, can be defined as all the interactions that happen between the participants in a process. In such a case, the state of the process is a combination of the state of all the current open interactions, past interactions and what is coming in the future. Interaction based programming defines what the different agents that are and how they interact in the process.

To illustrate, let us take the example of payment system. When chuck has to send money to Chen, Chuck will first issue a instrument (a Check) allowing the withdrawal of money. This instrument is send to Chen. This check is hidden from everyone and is visible only to the person who is in possession of the instrument (in this case Chen). The Chen takes that check, creates a deposit instrument, attaches the check to it and submits to the bank. The bank presents the check to the issuing bank. The issuing bank transfers the money and reduces it from Chucks account. Meanwhile, Chen's account balance is increased. In terms of information science, from an observers perspective, the accounts of Chen and chuck interact to transfer the money thru the check interaction.

Each account both Chen and chuck have their on state transitions as they operate. But in the case check instrument above, state transition happens in Chuck only after part of the work is done in Chen's account (of writing the deposit action). It is this notion of two independent systems that interact with each other and moving forward together is called as shared transition. I.e. Interaction makes shared transitions between two independently operating systems.

Present day software does transitions by modelling compute
but Connection Machine does shared transitions and by modelling interaction.

Mathematics of Interaction

Connection machine is built ground up to model concurrent systems. All commerce and business enterprises are concurrent systems. It models different people, machines and organizations that operate independently. The focus of Connection Machine is to make it easier for any enterprise to become a digital company which interacts with its stakeholders (customers, Vendors, employees, Government, etc) in real time. As mentioned earlier, this interaction and stakeholders telling each other in a network is achieved by shared transition .

The success of Von Neuman machine was its deep mathematical and algebraic foundation. The Connection machine is also built ground up from deep computer science and algebra to give it the mathematical rigor. This scientific rigor gives it a lasting technology underpinning. Unlike the traditional computer which was built to model state transitions represented as state transition tables, the MasterKube Connection Machine is built to model shared transitions . Like how the Von Neumann machine relied on Lambda Calculus, MasterKube Connection Machine relies on pi calculus the theory of shared transitions or interactions. In fact, Mr. Milner has proved mathematically that the concurrency is more foundational and sequentiality can be expressed thru concurrency.

The unique approach of Connection Machine of representing processes as signal operators and configuration operators are build on the pi calculus.

CMPL compared to algorithmic languages major differences

CMPL differs drastically from all algorithmic languges. At its core it is based on Interactions and shared state transitions. Because of this there are lot of fundamental changes which exist. They are:

No Exception management

Present day software is sequential. I.e. The program is a sequence of instructions that manipulate data. The control moves forward step at a time and is controlled by the program counter. This forward movement of control in a program is default. This is altered by moving throwing Exceptions. Exceptions exist because of the deterministic (Closed) nature of programs and the indeterministic nature of the world outside computer program.

CMPL is based on interactions. It assumes that the model of the world is indeterministic and hence the programs in CMPL are not sequential and closed but is open. Because of this unique approach, there is no exception management in CMPL.

No Main routine or Single entry point

All programs have a main routine. Sample below is the famous Hello world program

         // Your First Program
     class HelloWorld {
       public static void main(String[] args) {
       System.out.println("Hello, World!"); 

Notice the main. This is a standard in all sequential programs. It is the main entry point for a program. It is thru this entry point that the program exits. This is because of the sequential nature of programs. When a program is called from an operating system. It hands over control to the Main and expects control back from the main. It is the nature of sequential programs

But actual world is a process. There is lot of entities that operate concurrently to make this happen. CMPL reflects this. There is no programs in CMPL only processes. The state of processes can be observed by the observer from outside thru the connections exposed. Because of this, CMPL has no Main or single entry point.

No continuation operators and assignment operators

No specific data management functions

Current programming all about data management. Data is read from memory, processed and put back to database for long term storage. The main processing language and the data management are separate languages and need separate skill sets. This adds cost to the project and also adds rigidity to the programs written as the object oriented nature of the programming languages don't meet the row column nature of the database systems.

With CMPL, there is no database. The state of the system is always evolving. The state is exposed as a hypertext which can be easily read by human beings on a browser or machines as HTTP URls. Also because of this simplified and unified nature of the URL, it is easy to secure these systems.

From organizing data to organizing Autonomous Agents

Present day languages model data and process it. This is done by creating data structures. These data structures could be in the shape of tree, collection, list, etc. Each node of these structures store data. Programs can run through these structures to process the data.

Unlike programs of today, Connection Machine is a network of agents with independent behavior that interact with each other. The action/connection of each of these agents is how it communicates its state. By putting these actions in complex structures like tree, list, etc. and manipulating connections to these autonomous nodes, CMPL will be able to put these independently operating entities into a structure and create patterns of behavior.

More business level

Present day Information system machines, languages and systems are geared to manipulate data. These information artefacts are not geared to manipulate real time interactions in the world. The movement of people, from earlier PCs to network of smartphones, is making our applications pervasive. The program artificacts now have to move away from data manipulation to manipulation of experiences. This is something existing languages and machines are not geared to do.

MasterKube connection Machine programming language manipulates interactions that are presented by these Interenet of Everything Participants. As connection machine manipulates business particpant interactions it operates at the business level.

New AI Artificial Synaptic Network

First Sample Program (The Hello world)

The purpose of this program is to show case how code is written for an elementary program in connection machine programming language. It takes a input and outputs it across two signals (i.e URL) in parallel. All this is accomplished without writing any complex thread programming or coroutines

So here we are defining one element HelloworldName of type string.

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8' standalone='yes'?>
<Element><elementName>HelloworldName</elementName><type>string</type> </Element>

The next thing that needs to be defined is what actions will carry all these elements. This is similar to a method in formal programming. So in this case it is setting up two action one is HelloWorldAction and the other one is HelloWorldActionOutput. Both these actions carry the element HelloworldName

 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes" ?>
 <!--Actions for Hello world--> 

The next Agents are defined which gives the dynamic portion of the system. Each agent converts the action into a signal which can be observed from the outside as a URL of Connection Machine. It also defines the sequence in which different signals are activated and what happens when a signal is interacted with. In this case HelloWorldAgent is composed of an Agent HelloWorld1Agent and a Tell signal which exposed HelloWorldActionOutput running in parallel. The Tell signal always Expose the signal HelloWorldActionOutput as a URL. Any changes in the variable will be exposed in this output. The Tell signal is read only and cannot be affected from the outside

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
	<!-- Composed of Two things happen in parallel. One accepting the input and the other showing it constantly-->
	  <AgentCommand> <AgentName>HelloWorld1Agent</AgentName></AgentCommand>
	  <Tell> <action> <actionName>HelloWorldActionOutput</actionName> </action></Tell>

The next agent HelloWorld1Agent is defined. This is run in parallel in agent HelloWorldAgent. The agent HelloWorld1Agent has two things happening one after the other i.e sequentially. First it turns on the signal HelloWorldAction and on interacting it from outside it moves to activate the agent HelloWorld1Agent. i.e after interacting on signal HelloWorldAction it repeats again and again after every interaction on HelloWorldAction

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
      <!-- Accept the signal HelloWorldAction repeatedly --> 
	   <Ask> <action> <actionName>HelloWorldAction</actionName> </action> </Ask>
	   <AgentCommand> <AgentName>HelloWorld1Agent</AgentName></AgentCommand>

So what is observed is the action showing HelloWorldActionOutput and a action which accepts value on HelloWorldAction.

The Syntax

Follow this link Connection_Machine_Programming_Language to get more information on CMPL syntax

How can i build systems with Connection Machine

Present day systems are algorthmic and they manipulate data by transforming input to a predefined output. Enterprise need much more than that is offered by the current programming langauges like java, SQL, python, etc. Business enterprises need support for workflow, security, Privacy, role based security, aggregation, actioniable small data support, etc. These are now engineered by the development projects. With the 5G network and industry 4.0 upon us, the expectations from software applications are moving away from the present standalone applications to new class of applications that operate across the network with security and privacy.

Connection machine operates at the business level. Connection machine can be used to deliver high end Internet of Everything Digital Transformation projects very quickly. This is achieved by new approach to programming i.e by modelling interactions. Interaction oriented programming is different from current programming paradigm and delivers very smart systems. It models concurrency and hence can express all the needs of digital enterprise like workflow, network based applications, role based security, privacy, etc. This link explains how MasterKube connection machine does all this with examples of code.

Where can I apply it?

Conceive world of experiences

Interaction design (IxD) is the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services. Good interaction design, leads to good sticky customer experiences. This creates special bond connecting customer with a brand. A good customer experience offers speed, convenience, consistency, friendliness and human touch that ensures the customer is in the flow.

For good customer experiences, technology remains in the background ably guiding the customer thru the journey. The customer journey is a pathway of interactions. This interaction journey, being alien to the consumer can lead to gaps. A customer journey, can be monitored in real-time and gets escalated to a human touch when the interactions are not moving forward.

Current technology is based on algorithms. Algorithms by their very nature is a series of steps that happen in sequence. This makes the present technology determenistic. Some of the interactions design is non-determenistic in nature. This fundamental change in technology makes current technology unsuitable for creating these interaction experiences.

Unlike these present day systems, Connection Machine systems are based on interactions. Programming is modelling which interactions follow when an interaction is interacted with. Complex digital experiences can be modelled directly with Connection language directly. This makes Connection Machine the technology of choice for creating good customer experiences in digital transformation.

MasterKube Connection Machine models experiences directly.

Connect your information silos.

Is information silos, holding you back? Then connection machine may be your answer.

In any running enterprise, it is natural to have many diverse systems that do different functional operations which operate in silos. To get full efficacy it is important to have all these disconnected silos work together as part of a single process.

Right now, this integration is accomplished either of three ways they are a)with people b)screen scaping RPA BOTS or/and c) IT integration. Using people to integrate is quick and error prone whereas IT integration is effective but needs investment of time and money. Replacing a person with a RPA BOT will reduce the operational costs but it leads to rigidity in the information systems as small changes in screens/UI tend to break the BOT operation.

Connection machine is another approach to ease of bringing enterprises to networked era. The connection-based approach is to first bring all the silos to the network level by exposing it as REST interface. Then employ connection Machine and connect all the silos into a network of interacting systems. How the different silos interact to create a process can be sequenced on Connection Machine using the Connection Machine Programming Language. This will totally transform the enterprise into a effective organization cost effectively. With the REST interface the silos are decoupled and can be changed independently without affecting the overall system.

Connection Machine based integration is cost effective, leverage existing IT assets, Secure with privacy. Using a REST based integration decouples the different silos there by making it possible for these silos to evolve with minimum disruption.

Delivering your Internet of Everything Business Process

The connection machine is the best device to deliver solution for a concurrent problem. So, for example if the need is to create a workflow application that connects people, devices, legacy systems, other organizations into one seamless process flow then this is an ideal machine to deliver that complex multi-party, multi-device process problem.

What a Connection Machine is not

It is not a Sequential code accelerator.

The connection machine is a concurrent machine. It will not speed up your existing sequential code. The sequential code that you have needs to be revisited as a concurrent solution before it can be implemented on a Connection machine.

Selected References to some articles that is the essence of Connection Machine

People whose work made Connection machine possible